Nottingham’s Hospitals during World Wars One and Two, Including Key Events during the Inter War Years
World War One Declaration Time Line 1914
June 28: Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir to the Austro-
July 5: Austria-
July 28: Austria-
July 31: Germany warns Russia to stop mobilizing. Russia says mobilization is against Austria-
August 3: Germany declares war on France. Belgium denies permission for German forces to pass through to the French border.
August 4: Germany invades Belgium to outflank the French army. Britain protests the violation of Belgian neutrality, guaranteed by a treaty; German Chancellor replies that the treaty is just a chiffon de papier (a scrap of paper).
When Germany invaded neutral Belgium on the 4th August the UK declared war on Germany. On 5th August, the Proclamation of Mobilisation was made, followed on the 6th of August by Kitchener’s ‘Call to Arms’ (the UK had only a small standing army so immediately reservists were recalled). On August 8th, the Defence of the Realm (DORA) Act came into force. As a consequence this gave the government wide-
"No person shall by word of mouth or in writing spread reports likely to cause disaffection or alarm among any of His Majesty's forces or among the civilian population".
Following Kitchener’s ‘Call to Arms,’ places like the recruitment office in Nottingham’s Trinity Square was busy processing those who had volunteered, whilst the Red Cross immediately appealed for those who wish to volunteer as nurses as they proceeded to set up Voluntary Aid Detachment (V.A.D.) hospitals, the first being at Trent Bridge Pavillion, and to train those who volunteered.
Women who volunteered as V.A.D. Nurses came mainly from middle-
A collage of vintage nursing recruitment posters, mainly from World War One
A collage of campaign leaflets and photographs relating to women’s suffrage and the right to vote.
With more and more men volunteering for service on the Western Front in France an Belgium, attracted by better pay, women were required to take the place of men by working in factories , which had been given over to the production of war materials. For example, in Nottingham many factories switched to making respirators, and items of uniform, and new factories at King’s Meadow and Chilwell produced shells.
In May 1915 the ‘War Service for Women Movement’ was set up in Nottingham placing women with various employers. As a consequence, a number of women were employed as conductresses on trams, window cleaners (wearing trousers) land workers, bank clerks, nurses, respirator makers, and crane drivers.
National Shell Filling Factory, Chilwell, Nottinghamshire
Women as window cleaners
Women as Tram Conductors
World War One -
The First World War was proved to be a watershed for women’s rights. For example, in 1918 The UK government passed the Representation of the People Act 1918, enfranchising women over the age of 30 who met minimum property qualifications. Ten years later, in 1928, the Conservative government passed the Representation of the People (Equal Franchise) Act giving the vote to all women over the age of 21. Also, as a consequence of the war, with women having to do jobs that were normally carried out by men, especially in the world of medicine, apart from being nurses, they too were accepted into, what was before the war the male dominated profession.
Nottingham was no exception, during World War One women as doctors of medicine were appointed as doctors at the Nottingham General Hospital to takeover from those who, as members of the Royal Army Medical Corps, were posted to run field hospitals on the Western Front and other areas of conflict.
During World War One, Nottingham had two female doctors who became noted in their respective fields of medicine. The first was Margaret Glen Bott, who apart from stepping into the shoes of those who were called up for war service, went on to achieve fame as an eminent Gynaecologist and Surgeon at the Women’s Hospital on Peel Street and Nottingham Children’s Hospital. Apart from being a practising consultant gynaecologist she was also a councillor for the Mapperley Ward. Apart from her achievements as a consultant surgeon, her lasting legacy, from her time as a councillor, is that of a school in the Wollaton area of Nottingham which bears her name Margaret Glen Bott.
Nottingham’s second female doctor was that of Sarah Gray, apart from first of all being appointed as an assistant surgeon in charge of outpatients, and as an anaesthetist, or as it was then referred to as, chloroformist, in which she was watched over for a whole year by her male colleagues, when administering chloroform, eager to discover and proclaim some negligence or inefficiency, she went on to become the first female president for 1921-
A CALL TO ARMS
As war began, which was to last four-
In his euphoric climate Kitchener’s ‘Call to Arms,’ in which he asked for 100,000 men between nineteen and thirty, was soon fully answered. Before the end of August, he had appealed for 100,000 more and raised the recruiting age to thirty-
Before conscription was finally announced by Herbert Asquith in January 1916, 24,229 men from Nottingham (out of a national total of 2.4 million) had enlisted voluntarily for service with the British Army, 18,527 for New Army units and 5,702 for Territorial battalions.
There were, inevitably, other motives mixed with the patriotic one among those who volunteered. For some it was a chance to exchange the dull routine of their lives for the possibility of travel and excitement (Brown, M. 1978, p. 20). However, believing the war would be a brisk and spectacular movement of excitement and adventure, as envisaged in August 1914, only lasted a matter of weeks. As early as mid September the order to ‘entrench’ was given by the French Commander-
HARSH REALITIES OF WAR
The realisation that the war would not be over by Christmas came when the first casualties from the fighting on the Western Front were transported back to hospitals in the UK. For example, just two months into the fighting saw the first 54 casualties arrive in Nottingham’s Hospitals and funeral take place in Nottingham of Corporal William Stevens, a soldier from Lenton who had died from injuries sustained from fighting the enemy on the battle fields of Northern France and Belgium.
FACT AND FICTION OF WARFARE
The two attached videos convey two different meanings of warfare. The above video, a collection of armed forces recruiting posters and posters, urging the country to pull together in face of the common enemy, whist the second video, a collection of artists impressions of life on the Western Front, that the experiences of those doing the fighting is far cry from the 1914 call to arms conveyed in the first video, thus dispelling the myth the war would be over by Christmas.
Upon the outbreak of war, 102 beds were immediately placed at the disposal of the military authorities. As an example, the Jubilee Wing at the Nottingham General Hospital was soon full of sick and wounded soldiers.
The Nottingham General Hospital as it appeared in 1913. The Jubilee Wing is the round wards on the right of the picture. Since the hospital’s closure in 1993 the wards have been converted into offices and a Pub and Restaurant.
Wounded Soldiers recovering from their wounds on the Jubilee Wing of the Nottingham General Hospital. The soldier laying in the bed on right, note that the bed is shorter. It is probability because he has had his legs amputated or they were blown off from explosion on the Western Front.
A far cry from the images of World War One soldiers recovering from their wounds, the same ward as it appears today, an open plan office!
Circa 1980’s: Thorton House: The Thornton family house on the Ropewalk was given to the Nottingham General Hospital and the Red Cross provided additional equipment and nurses.
The Ropewalk as it appears today After demolition and rebuild, the building on the right is where Thornton House once stood.
Further hospital expansion became necessary, in 1915 temporary wards to accommodate 150 casualties were built on the front lawn of the Nottingham General Hospital. The cost was met by the War Ministry and Mr. William Goodacre Player.
1915: Inside the Temporary Wards
Group photograph of hospital staff, patients and visitors taken on the lawn between the temporary wards and entrance to the Hospital.
1917: Additional Accommodation for 53 Beds. The costs were shared by the War Office and Mr W. G. Player.
1918: Photograph taken outside the temporary ward that was built in 1917.
NOTTINGHAM’S WORLD WAR ONE HOSPITALS
Military Hospital, Bagthorpe
Nottm General Hospital
The Cedars, Mansfield Road
Trent Bridge Cricket Ground
Forest Fields School
Arnot Hill Park
To Enlarge Each Image and for More Information, Click on the Photograph
Trent Bridge School
Clipstone Army Camp near Mansfield. 356 beds were reserved for wounded soldiers.
NOTTINGHAMSHIRE’S WORLD WAR ONE RED CROSS HOSPITALS
The Batley Red Cross Hospital, Derby Road, Nottingham.
Throney Hall, Newark-
Newark Red Cross Hospital, Newark-
Mapperley Hall, Nottingham (Ancestral home of Ichabod Wright)
VAD Hospital, Eastwood.
Brackenhurst Auxiliary Military Hospital, Southwell
The Cedars, Beeston.
Welbeck Abbey, Worksop (Duke and Duchess of Portland)
Red Cross Hospital, Lombard Street, Newark-
Babworth Hall, Retford.
Sherwood Rangers Headquarters Hospital, 12, Lime Tree Avenue, Retford.
Burgage Manor, Southwell.
Pavilion, West Bridgford.
Arnot Hill, Daybrook (Arnot Hill Park).
9, Ropewalk, Nottingham (Thornton House)
Bowden Hospital, Mapperley Road, Nottingham.
Lamcote Auxiliary Hospital for Officers, Radcliffe-
NOTTINGHAM’S CONSULTANT PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS WHO SERVED THEIR COUNTRY DURING WORLD WAR ONE
IN HONOUR OF THOSE WHO NURSED THE WOUNDED ON THE FRONT LINE NOTTINGHAM NURSE,
SISTER ELIZABETH MARY WILSON
Click on image to enlarge
Click on image to enlarge
Sister Elizabeth Mary Wilson
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A LEGACY OF WORLD WAR ONE – SHELL SHOCK
In total, around 9 million men lost their lives. However, during the war, 346 British and Commonwealth soldiers were shot on the orders of military top brass and senior officers.
The pretexts for execution for British soldiers had a common theme: many were suffering shell shock and most were deliberately picked out and convicted "as a lesson to others". Charges included desertion, cowardice, or insubordination. Some were simply obeying orders to carry information from one trench to another. Most of those shot were young, defenceless and vulnerable teenagers who had volunteered for duty. They were selected, charged, and subjected to a mock trial often without defence one day, convicted, then shot at dawn the following day.
SHOT AT DAWN
The British Army’s use of capital punishment on active service between 1914 and 1918 then turn’s out to be the norm for armies of the day. Indeed, it can be argued strongly that the death penalty was used only in a minute percentage of cases. During the period 4 August 1914 to October 1918, there were approximately 238,000 courts martial resulting in 3,080 death sentences. Of these only 346 were carried out, which break down into the following categories of offences on active service:
Disobedience of a lawful order 5
Sleeping at post 2
Striking a superior officer 6
Casting away arms 2
Quitting post 7
Of the two main military offences, there were 551 courts martial for cowardice, with 3.3 per cent resulting in execution; and there were 7,371 for desertion of which about (records differ) 3,000 resulted in sentence of death, of which 266 were executed (3.6 per cent of the total tried). No fewer than 5,250,000 men served in the British Army in the First World War of whom 750,000 were killed and 1,5000,000 wounded.
These statistics show with lucid clarity just how sparingly the final sanction of military law was employed by a massive army fighting for its life. The question then remains: how and why was it used; and was it successful as a disciplinary policy (Corns, C. & Hughes-
AFTERMATH OF WORLD WAR ONE – THE LOST GENERATION
The "Lost Generation" was the generation that came of age during World War I. The term was popularised by Ernest Hemingway, who used it as one of two contrasting epigraphs for his novel, The Sun Also Rises.
Unlike in successive wars that were categorized by a different set of class values, the First World War in Europe had heavy involvement of upper and upper-
This does not simply refer to the massive numbers of casualties across class lines or the population loss that occurred; rather it refers to the more specific condition of a European loss of the future intellectual elite.
Although ever war death was wasteful, the deaths of thousands of educated and privileged young men brought about what was called a ‘Lost Generation’ of future politicians philosophers, and poets who never had the chance to fulfil their promise.”
Nottingham’s World War One Roll of Honour
5,370 men from Nottingham lost their lives during World War One.
By 1921 the city’s General Hospital was still treating 18,400 disabled servicemen.
2,500 children from the city lost fathers during the conflict with many thousands more left grieving for brothers and other relatives.
WORLD WAR ONE SURGICAL ADVANCEMENTS -
Sir Harold Gillies, the father of Plastic Surgery, was a keen follower of the French Maxilla Facial Surgeon Hippolyte Morestin.
Harold Gillies, Queen’s Hospital, Sidcup, Kent.
The Queen's Hospital opened in June 1917 and with its convalescent units provided over 1,000 beds. There Gillies and his colleagues developed many techniques of plastic surgery; more than 11,000 operations were performed on over 5,000 men (mostly soldiers with facial injuries, usually from gunshot wounds).
Henry Tonks, FRCS (9 April 1862 – 8 January 1937) was a British surgeon and later draughtsman and painter of figure subjects, chiefly interiors, and a caricaturist. He became an influential art teacher.
He became a lieutenant in the Royal Army Medical Corps in 1916, and worked for Harold Gillies producing pastel drawings recording facial injury cases at the Cambridge military hospital in Aldershot and the Queen's Hospital, Sidcup.
Henry Tonks, FRCS
1919 – 1920: The first Annual Report of the Ministry of Health
No report of the Administration of the Poor Law during the past year and those directly preceding it would be complete without reference to the part played by the Guardians during the war. When accommodation of all kinds for war purposes became imperative, Guardians rose to the occasion by providing, which have been valued beyond calculation? Difficulties accommodating their own poor were inevitable. These difficulties were surmounted in various ways and always and un-
Much might be written on the subject, but a brief survey must suffice. The Guardians of the Parish of Nottingham at once place their separate infirmary at the disposal of the War Office. This large infirmary, built some 24 years ago, had accommodation for 750 patients, and could be described as thoroughly up-
The Guardians at Leicester, within a few days, agreed to place their infirmary at the disposal of the War Office. This infirmary is entirely separate and distinct from the workhouse and situated just outside the city boundary at North Evington. Though Smaller, it is very similar to the Nottingham Infirmary, and accommodation in pre-
1925 Nottingham City Hospital: The operating Theatre referred to in the first Annual Report for 1919 of the Ministry of Health
THE RUINS: AFTER THE BATTLES OF YPRES
THE INTER WAR YEARS: A PERIOD OF GREAT EXPANSION
Architects Robert Evans and Sons drawing of the expansion of the Nottingham General Hospital
W. G. Player Ward
Pay Bed Wing
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1919 – 1923 THE WAR MEMORIAL, A NEW NURSES HOME
November 1919: An extension sub-
1922: The Extension Committee reported that the new Nurses Home will be: “A dignified and worthy memorial to the heroic dead, and a distinct ornament to the City.”
In the same year £92,000 was raised. At the outset, the fund had risen by accrued interest to £103,000, which amongst other things enabled the boundary wall on Lenton Road to be built.
Apart from donations from local industries, the British Red Cross gave £15,000. The Duke of Newcastle gave plots of land to the value of £3,320. A grand bazar raised £6,835 towards furnishing the home. Once the building work was finally completed it was formally opened by the HRH The Prince of Wales on August 1st, 1923.
Opening of the Memorial Nurses Home by the Prince of Wales 1st August, 1923
1923: Lenton Road
Nurses Home & Ball War Memorial, Nottingham Castle
Circa 1920’s Nursing group photograph outside the Memorial Nurses Home
Memorial Plaque above the entrance to Memorial Nurses Home/Royal Standard House
War Memorial on Lenton Road
VISIT TO NOTTINGHAM BY THE PRINCE OF WALES, 1 AUGUST, 1923
Ellerslie House Home for Paralysed Soldiers and Sailors was set up in 1917; was purchased by the 6th Duke of Portland and donated to a committee established to provide long-
Designed by City Engineer and Surveyor T. Wallis Gordon, the war memorial and memorial gardens were built on the Victoria Embankment after the First World War. They are built on land donated by Sir Jesse Boot, the founder of Boots the Chemist, to the Corporation of Nottingham in 1920. The land was to provide open space and a memorial site. Work first started on the gardens in 1923 when on the 1st of August, HRH The Prince of Wales laid the Foundation Stone. The war memorial and gardens were eventually opened to the public on the 11th November 1927.
The Memorial Gardens as it appeared in 1927
During World War One 5,370 men from Nottingham lost their lives, of those deaths 334 died in Nottingham’s Hospitals, mostly from the Military Hospital Bagthorpe (Nottingham City Hospital) of which 0ver 100 names are inscribed on the Screen Wall of the World War One Memorial in Nottingham’s General Cemetery. To find out who those names are, and the memorial to them, click on the photograph below, which is of the World War One Memorial.
‘This is Peace in our Time’
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3 September, 1939: Britain Declares War On Germany
To hear the complete BBC broadcast by the British Prime Minster, Neville Chamberlain, declaring war on Germany, click on the disc icon.
ANDERSON AIR RAID SHELTER
Named after Sir John Anderson, Home Secretary. Designed to accommodate up to six people, the government supplied them free to low income families and later sold to others. 1.5 million Anderson shelters were distributed in the months immediately leading up to the outbreak of war. When production ended 3.6 million had been produced.
COMMUNAL AIR RAID SHELTER, THE MEADOWS, NOTTINGHAM
NOTTINGHAM PREPARES FOR WAR
Under the command of Athelstan Horn Popkess CBE (1895-
VOLUNTEER STRETCHER BEARERS, NOTTINGHAM GENERAL HOSPITAL
With the outbreak of the Second World War the General Hospital became part of the Emergency Medical Service and 75 extra beds were squeezed into the existing wards to deal with the expected flood of casualties.
The General Hospital formed four mobile surgical teams, each comprising a surgeon, an assistant, an anaesthetist and two nurses.
AIR RAID SHELTER CONSTRUCTION, NOTTINGHAM CITY HOSPITAL
MEDICAL STAFF, NOTTINGHAM CITY HOSPITAL, READY FOR WAR!
NOTTINGHAM EVENING POST, 3 SEPTEMBER, 1939
To enlarge, click on image
SEPTEMBER 1939: BINGHAM RECEIVES EVACUATED CHILDREN FROM NOTTINGHAM
1940 – 1941 BRITAIN STANDS ALONE
To listen to the British Prime Minister’ Winston Churchill’s Finest Hour Speech given on the 18th June, 1949 in full, click on the disc icon.
THE NOTTINGHAM BLITZ OF 8 AND 9 MAY, 1941
Although Nottingham was bombed on only 11 occasions and, 179 people were killed and 350 injured, the worst air raid occurred on the night of 8 and 9 May 1941 when 159 people including 31 children were killed and 274 injured.
University College, Nottingham after the Air Raid of the 8 and 9 May, 1941.
To enlarge, click on image
To enlarge, click on image
IT WAS A RAID THAT DID NOT ACHIEVE ITS AIM!
The Morning After the Air Raid
The raid on the night of 8–9 May by the German Luftwaffe’s intended targets were in Nottingham and Derby. The X-
A Starfish decoy fire system located near Cropwell Butler in the Vale of Belvoir confused the aircraft, and many of the bombs intended for Nottingham were dropped on open farmland. Therefore the raids on both Nottingham and Derby did not achieve the intended aims.
STARFISH DECOY TARGET
Starfish towns were sited miles away from communities and cities likely to come under attack. As soon as the first wave of German bombers lit up or attacked a real target, emergency teams raced to extinguish the flames – then lit the decoy fires.
The aim was to convince the second wave of enemy aircraft this was the target and to fool them into dropping bombs harmlessly onto the decoy site.
GERMAN LUFTWAFFE AERIAL VIEW OF NOTTINGHAM
Threat of an Air Raid -
Broadway, Lace Market
Food rationing began on the 8th January 1940, though the necessary ration books had started to be issued after National Registration Day on 29th of September 1939 (Gardiner, J. 2004, 161).
Every household received a ration book for each member and was obliged to register with a retailer(Gardiner, J. 2004, 167, 168).
This was in order to guarantee supplies; since the shopkeeper receives stock replacements based on number of registered customers he (or sometimes she) had (Gardiner, J. 2004, 167, 168).
Institutions, such as hospitals, boarding schools and prisons, had the aggregate of their inmates calculated and rations allocated accordingly; hotels required guests to hand over their ration books for the duration of their stay, while restaurants and cafes had their rations calculated on the basis of past performance – the number of meals they had been serving before rationing was introduced (Gardiner, J. 2004, 168).
CHARITABLE APPEALS – FOOD FOR PATIENTS!
Nottingham General Hospital Egg Week
Nottm Children’s Hospital, Annual Report, 1942
NOTTINGHAM CITY HOSPITAL FARM, DIGGING FOR VICTORY
To enlarge, click on each individual photograph
ENTERTAINING THE TROOPS!
Lister Two Ward, Nottingham City Hospital
VERA LYNN AND STAINLESS STEPHEN ENTERTAIN THE TROOPS ON LISTER TWO WARD, 9 JULY 1943
Circa 1940’s: Firs Maternity Unit, Mansfield Road, Sherwood, Nottingham
Circa 1940’s: Valebrook Lodge (Sherwood Main Hall, South Corridor)
WARTIME CHRISTMAS CELEBRATIONS, VISITING WOUNDED SERVICE PERSONNEL
CARVING THE CHRISTMAS TURKEY
Lister Two Ward, Nottingham City Hospital
THE CONTINUED EXPANSION OF THE NOTTINGHAM GENERAL HOSPITAL -
Gover Ford and University Wards were added on in 1943 as was the covered walkway to the nurses homes.
1943: Pearson House, Standard Hill
D.Day June 6 1944
Excerpt from the Chaplains minute book, Nottingham City Hospital
“On Invasion Day, June 6th, Services of Intercession were arranged together with, and taken by Mr. Evans and the Chaplain throughout the week, many of which were well attended.”
Since D. Day, June 6th, the Invasion of Normandy, much of the hospital work has been amongst convoys of wounded men (including a number of Germans), in all between six and seven hundred, and as far as possible, I have had a personal word with each patient.”
8 MAY 1945, VICTORY IN EUROPE
Old Market Square, Nottingham
Excerpt from the Chaplains minute book, Nottingham City Hospital
“The special items during this period under review have been the two special thanksgiving services for Victory in Europe, which were held on Tuesday evening, May 8th and Sunday 13th . These were united services arranged and taken by the chaplain and Mr. Evans, and were very well attended and appreciated by the staff, patients and inmates.”
15 AUGUST, 1945 VICTORY OVER JAPAN (VJ DAY)
Excerpt from the Chaplains minute book, Nottingham City Hospital
Focusing during the period under review, mention must be made of the special Thanksgiving Services for War Victory (V.J.), which were held on Wednesday evening, 15th August and Sunday morning August 19th. These were attended by staff, patients and inmates, and an opportunity was thus given for expressing thanks to God in worship for the ending of the war.
AFTERMATH OF WORLD WAR TWO
The Cold War (1945 – 1989)
The further development of nuclear weapons.
The defeat of Sir Winston Churchill in the 1945 General Election.
Landslide victory by the Labour Party, which gave birth to the Welfare. State.
British politics between 1919 and 1939 was dominated by the Conservative Party, which was in office for six years between 1922 and 1929 and was the largest element both in the post-
The National Government comprised a coalition of Conservatives, Labour members who supported Macdonald (who were known as National Labour) and Liberals who supported Macdonald (known as National Liberals). The opposition to the National Government was made up of Labour members of Parliament who refuse to accept Macdonald's leadership, and the Independent Labour Party (and, from the 1935 general election, one Communist MP). The 1931 election returned 470 Conservatives out of 615 MPs and the 1935 election 387 out of 615. The combined opposition to the National Government won 56 seats in 1931 and 171 in 1935. The National Government ended in May 1940 when Churchill became Prime Minister and formed a wartime coalition including the opposition Labour Party.
GOVERNMENTS AND PRIME MINISTERS
From the founding of the League of Nations in 1920, which Britain played an important part in constructing, British governments were formally committed to working within its framework to ensure that international crisis were resolved through negotiation. In practice Britain played a more detached role during the 1920s and 1930s, and continued to conduct a foreign policy based on collaboration among the major powers. For much of the period Britain hoped to reintegrate defeated Germany back into the international system and was not unwilling to renegotiate aspects of the Versailles Treaty. British governments tended to distrust France and French ambitions in Europe and to collaborate with the United States, which had refused to join the League in 1920. Britain's chief interests were to preserve the Empire and to maintain international peace and a stable international economy. By the 1930s none of these ambitions could be fully realised. The world economy went into crisis, the Empire became a source of growing unrest (in India and Palestine in particular) and the search for International peace was challenged by the Japanese occupation of Manchuria in northern China in 1931, the Italian conquest of Ethiopian in 1935-
FOREIGN POLICY: KEY DATES
The British economy was the largest trading economy in the world in 1914 and the third largest manufacturing economy. Britain was also enormously wealthy and supplied a large part of the world with investment credit. In the interwar years, Britain's position declined relatively as other countries expanded trade and industrial output. British trade failed to return to the pre-
1926: short economic downturn.
1937: brief recession followed by armaments boom.
The economic crisis following the Wall Street Crash, was in truth the worldwide economic and social catastrophe. Though Britain was less severely affected than the German and American economies, trade nevertheless fell by 50 per cent between 1929 and 1933, the output of heavy industry fell by one-
Overy, R. (2010) The Morbid Age: Britain and the Crisis of Civilization, 1939 pp xvii, xviii, xix, xx, xxi, 68,69 Penguin Books Ltd, 80 Strand, London WC2R 0RI
To hear PM Neville Chamberlain's speech on his peace negotiations with Hitler from the 27 September 1938, click on the disc icon.
To listen to the British Prime Minister Winston Churchill’s We Shall Fight on the Beaches speech to the House of Commons on June 4, 1940. Click on the adjoining disc icon.
To hear the BBC broadcast by H.M. King George V from 3 September, 1939, click on the adjoining disc icon.
To listen to Winston Churchill’s Speech -
To listen to the BBC Broadcast's D-
To listen to HM King George VI’s D.Day speech on June 6th 1944, click on the adjoining disc icon
(20 Aug 1945) Mr Attlee broadcast at midnight the news that victory over Japan was complete. VJ Day coincided with the Royal Opening of Parliament and the King and Queen's drive to Westminster began the two days of celebrations. To listen and watch the speech given by the Prime Minister, click on the adjoining disc icon.